This course brings out the special issues in the main physical infrastructure areas. Infrastructure sectors are characterized by one of more varieties of market failure. Thus the natural monopoly failure and/or appropriability failure characterize many of the sectors. Other failures include those which arise out of load flow, demand side network economies, and possibilities of congestion/ scarcity.   The services of these sectors being also crucial – in other words their sudden absence can cause much difficulty to their users – also make their important management.  Typically therefore the role of the government has been significant either as owners and operators and/or as regulators, especially in the mature phases, and in the late industrializing countries even in the emergent phases. This course limits itself to the following sectors:


  1. Electricity

  2. Transportation

  3. Urban Services

  4. Telecom

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